Heroes’ Hearts© Pearl Harbor Survivor Interview Transcript

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Pearl Harbor Survivor Sam Richiusa

Heroes’ Hearts Pearl Harbor Survivor Interview Transcript

(Q)How well do you remember the morning of December 7, 1941?
“It was just before my twenty-second birthday. I was twenty-one years old. On the 11th, I turned 22. [00:20 on Disk]

(Q) How long had you been in the Marines?
“I joined the Marines in 1939…October 2nd. So, I was in a little over two years.

What was your expectation of war at that time?
“We expected that we would go to war, because England and Germany were fighting, and France was also involved in the war at that time. You never know what’s going to happen.

What was your rank?
“At that time, I was a corporal.

How vividly do you recall that particular day?
“Well, I recall it pretty well. What do you want to know?

What time of day was it?
“It was morning and we just got up, and we’d missed breakfast because we’d overslept. So, we were going to get some stuff at the Canteen in a place we called The Greasy Spoon out there. Junk food, we were going to eat that, and then we were going to play some cards. I think it was just before seven o’clock, Sunday, Sunday morning. [02:19 on Disk]

Who were you with?
“I can’t remember all their names. A bunch of us were going to play some poker. A bunch of us were going to play, and I can’t even remember all the names of the guys I was going to play poker with. There was Corporal Rudd, at that time, and Sergeant Sears…I can’t think who they were now, but there was about two or three more guys who were going to play…five or six of us.

And all of a sudden you heard…?

“Well, we heard bombing. We heard bombs going off, and so we went out. We were living in tents along the parade ground…the Marine barracks. And, so we just went outside the tents, looked up and saw planes flying around, and dropping bombs. We thought that was maneuvers of some kind. We saw the red circle on the side of the planes and we thought that was the red team probably, ‘cause they had colored teams sometimes during maneuvers…and, I can’t remember the sergeant’s name that had been in China and he knew that was a Japanese…that those were Japanese planes. He knew the marking on there. And, he told us they were Japanese. They were not our planes. They looked quite a bit like one of our fighter planes that we had, but they were a little bit smaller. Then, suddenly they started flying over us! After they dropped the bombs in the harbor, they’d go over our barracks and started strafing us, shooting at us, and we were unarmed at that time. Anyway, they would fly over us and bomb Hickam Field, which was just on the other side of our parade ground there…at that time. Right now it’s part of the civilian airport, the Honolulu Airport. [pause to check if this is what I wanted. I gave him the go ahead.] When they started shootin’ at us, we were told that that was a Japanese planes, then we were unarmed. [05:40 on Disk]

“All we had were rifles with no ammunition. The Sergeant…a few of the NCOs and sergeants had pistols, but they couldn’t even fire those, because no one had any ammunition at that time. So, we went to the armory to get ammunition, and they told us we had to have a requisition for it.”

Who was at the armory?
“I believe it was a lieutenant, a second lieutenant that was in there. Anyhow, he told us that we had to have a requisition and the Sergeant…”

Could he hear the bombing and see what was going on?
“I guess he could! We could hear it, but he wanted to refuse to give us any ammunition. So, Sergeant Sears…I think there were five of us who went in there…two privates, two corporals, and the sergeant. I don’t remember the names of the privates but I do remember the names of the NCOs over there…and Sergeant says, ‘Well, we’re going to TAKE the ammunition.’ [The Lieutenant} said we couldn’t do that, but anyhow we just went in there and we took it. We just pushed our way in and loaded up some dollies that they had in there. [07:33 on Disk]
“We got ammunition, for rifle ammunition, pistol ammunition, and then machine gun ammunition for both 50 and 30 caliber machine guns…And, we also got machine guns, because we had none with us. We weren’t assigned any machine guns for our outfit. So, we got some of those. We deployed among the heavy equipment there. I was in the Engineers. We had heavy equipment and we sort of used that for cover for us…bulldozers and carryalls and different kinds of tractors and stuff. We had all kinds of heavy equipment there. We were in among them, used those for cover and set up machine guns and [by then] everybody around us got ammunition for whatever they had and a…we started shootin’. The Marines [who] were deployed out there on the parade ground were credited with getting three planes that were flying over us. [09:12 on Disk]

How many planes were there altogether?
“Oh gosh, I never did know how many planes there were, but they’d come over us in waves, you know. There would be a little break and a bunch of ‘em would start comin’ [leading questions] over randomly it seemed like. They were flying very low. I would say less than 100 feet off the ground, and they’d fly over the barracks and were strafing us as they were going there. They just wanted to keep us down, the ones that were out in the open there. What they were trying to get were the ships and the planes with their bombs. They didn’t bomb us at all. They were trying to get the equipment there.”

How long did this whole thing last?
“I think it was a little over an hour, because they came in two big waves. There must have been 50 to 100 planes and I’m sure some of them came over more than one time. Then, it stopped. There was no more bombing, but then we started preparing and everybody was armed by that time. Then we set up patrols. We set up machine guns on some of the trucks, patrolling the island, all around the island to make sure that there wasn’t any landing coming in because we didn’t know what was going to happen. Everyone was tense, because they wanted to be sure that we saw what was comin’ then. There was no more firing until that night, and I’m not sure about the time this was…about an hour after sunset, hour and a half, maybe two hours, I don’t know, after sunset we heard a plane, A plane I think. Everybody started shootin’ at it. They picked it up on the lights. We DO know now that it wasn’t a Japanese plane. It was an American plane. As far as I know we didn’t hit it, but the place lit up like the fourth of July with tracer bullets just flying all over the place.

***So right after this hour where there was this continuous bombing and you guys are shootin’ back a little bit…
“After the lull you mean? [After that lull] I don’t know how many of us were on there, but we rode around in a truck—probably four or five of us—with a machine gun, a fifty caliber machine gun mounted on it and we were patrollin’ around the island. When we got close to some pineapple fields, some of the natives there that were working in the pineapple field came over to our truck there and said they had killed a Japanese that had crashed his plane in one of the fields there. [14:31 on Disk]

Did you go check it out?
“No, we didn’t go check it out. One of them gave me the knife he said he’d used to kill the [Japanese pilot]…that he said he’d used to kill him. I brought it home and gave it to my nephew Eddie. Last time I talked to him, he said he still had it.

How long were you in Hawaii after this?
“I left in March of ’42 and we went back to the states. We went and did some training at Camp Eliot. We were forming a new engineering group.

That was the Sea Bees?
“No. The Sea Bees were Navy. We were Marine engineers. It was the second Marine engineers that I was in when then attacked us.

What was the new group called? Was there a name for it?
“The new group? I am not sure. We had so many different names. I think one of them was the 18th Marine Engineers. I can’t recall all the different names we were under. We were still the same group, always mostly the same group of people that went in with the training…but we had new people that went in with us also, when we went back to the United States. Then, in September or October we went aboard ship. We didn’t know where we were going. We went to a whole bunch of different islands [umea?] and Samoa and stayed aboard ship all this time. [17:10 on disk]

You didn’t go ashore at all?
“When we were in [Umea] they didn’t let us go ashore because they had some bubonic plague at that time. And, they didn’t let us go ashore at Samoa. I don’t recall what the reason was. I think they had some disease going around over there at that time, too. So, we didn’t get to go ashore until a couple of weeks later after we left the United States…several weeks later. I don’t know just exactly how long until we landed. We spent one night in Australia and we got to go ashore there. The Australians met us there and invited us to go to the Y with them. They had some kind of a show they put on for us. Then, the next day we left. From there we went to New Zealand. We hit a great big storm, a storm where the waves were higher…I was aboard the Luriline, which was a pretty good size ship that they had commissioned to carry troops. It was a civilian ship company and was made for carrying troops after that, during all the war I guess. Cause’ I don’t think it was ever sunk.

So the waves were going over the top?
“Over the top of the big ship! If was very, very rough. They made us go below deck. [19:38 on disk]
“The hatches were all closed, I guess so they wouldn’t get swamped. The air got stale, but we tried to play cards while this is all happening. Sittin’ on a blanket…we would slide all the way across the floor…the ship was tilting and we’d slide clear across the rooms there. Anyhow, several days later we got to New Zealand. I was in New Zealand for pretty close to a year. We built a camp at one of the Maori villages there. I can’t recall what they call that area. We built a camp that was supposed to be for people coming back from over seas…to go out there and rest and train and whatever they were doing. It was not for Americans. I believe it was for the New Zealand troops that were coming back from Africa. They were fighting in Africa.
Anyhow, when we finished that, we were there almost a year…then we went to Hawaii. [21:43 on Disk]

So this was 1942, 43?
“This was late in ’43 we went to Hawaii. We may have been there OVER a year. Seems to me we might have spent two Christmases there. We went to the Big Island and we built a camp over there for people coming back for recreation and things. We built a theater there at this camp. I don’t recall the name of this camp, but I have that information and can give it to you if you want it. [22:53 on Disk]

So, when did you ship out again to…
“Like a said, we went to Hawaii and we stayed on the Big Island for several months. We finished our camp there they put us all aboard ship….

[DISK OUT OF SEQUENCE….] [23:32—Jumps to…]

“There were ships all over the place over there.
And you saw them getting hit?
“I didn’t see them getting hit, because the Marine barracks was between us and the harbor. But, we visited after the attack we visited a lot of places over there and we could see some of the ship… A couple of ships you could see were gone aground, and also, this is after the attack, several days later they brought up…I think they said it was a two-man submarine. It was a very small submarine…I would say thirty feet long at the most, very small, a Japanese [sub] that they’d captured… We saw a couple of planes that had gone down and a piece of one plane and I made mom a bracelet…I don’t know if you ever saw it…it was a double heart bracelet.
I think I have.
“And, I have…I still have a piece of that plane in one of those albums I made. It was made out of wood. I have a piece of a plane in there, and that’s where I have my commendation…”

Oh, from Roosevelt?
“I’m pretty sure it was from Roosevelt…”
It must have been…at the time.
“Yeah.”

[26:12 JUMPS BACK TO STORY AFTER THE ATTACK]

So, what happened next? What happened after December 7th?
“We went aboard ship and held maneuvers on Maui. Then, a…we got orders to go to Saipan. We didn’t know we were going to Saipan, but we got orders while we were aboard ship that we were going to continue to battle, going to an island. We knew we were going to an island but we didn’t know where. While we were aboard ship, we were attacked by Japanese’ planes. This was a week or ten days after we left Hawaii, four or five days before we landed. We landed in Guam…I’m sorry…we didn’t land in Guam. We landed in Saipan, which is in the Marianas. So is Guam. Other troops landed in Guam. We took that island. We dug in that first night. There was an airfield and we were between the airfield and the ocean. Late that night, probably around midnight. I’m not sure of the time. The Japanese had a banzai attack on us. We had gone across there, but after we took the beachhead there, we stopped at the airstrip; other Marines had come in behind us. They went on and had taken the airfield and had gone across the airfield. During that night, the Banzai attack happened. By that time, we had gun in placements set up all along the airfield. When they were coming across the airfield, we were just shooting ‘em down, and they just kept on coming. Up to the north of us, a town called [Gairpan?] they overran that town. They overran the Marines up there and they took part of the artillery. I believe it was the 10th Marines. They overran them. I not sure how, but they did get a lot of our equipment. Then, by the next day we took all that part back. The Banzai, when they got over halfway across the airfield and I guess they gave up. They retreated…they retreated after that, back to the other side of the airfield…”

What made them different?
“The next morning…What made them different was that they were screamin’ and hollerin’ and they were out in the open, because they had no cover, just right out in the open. And, a…I guess they were trying to scare us with their hollerin’ and stuff, but we were just cuttin’ ‘em down. And, the next day we were pretty complacent. We had captured, over to the side of the airfield there was a Japanese ammunition dump. Maybe seventy-five or a hundred yards north east of us. We had gone through there and made sure there was no enemy in there. It was all loaded, all full of all different kinds of Japanese equipment and ammunition. Sometime on the second day they started using their artillery and aimed it at that ammunition dump they had there…and they exploded it…

Blew up their own ammunition?
“They blew up their own ammunition. By doing that they had fragments of anti aircraft ammunition and bombs were exploded. [32:08 on Disk]
“Some pieces of [shrapnel] were about 18 inches long, in fragments, and they’d come flying through the air. And, one piece landed in the foxhole I was in and killed a guy right next to me…[cut his head off]…and, a…I don’t even recall his name.” [32:38]

Were you injured then?
“No, I was not injured.”

When were you injured?
“The only day I was injured at all, and I did not report it, was on the first day at Pearl Harbor. I got hit in the ankle with a dying bullet. I just burned my flesh, and it just sort of tore a little bit of the flesh away there. That’s the only time I was injured during the war. And, I didn’t report it because I didn’t wanna…I thought we were going from there on toward Japan, you know, and attack them. But, they sent us back to the States.

So, you were angry at the Japanese…
“I was angry at the Japanese. I didn’t want to have to say that I was hurt. It [wound] got infected a little bit, but it went away after a couple of weeks.”

Where do you think you picked up malaria?
“I picked up what they thought was malaria, at that time…and I believe it was the onset of dengue fever, instead of malaria…it was on Saipan. We’d been there probably a week or two. I was getting the chills and they thought is was malaria. Maybe it was because I had recurring chills and they told me that I had dengue fever, from the chills and fever that I had first. Then, I started aching…my whole body was aching. That’s how they discovered the dengue fever, but after the war…the fact is, while I was still in the service, several times I got recurring chills and they told me that I had malaria. So, I guess that’s where I got the malaria, in Saipan, but also dengue fever. Anyhow, I lost probably twenty pounds or more, maybe even thirty pounds from this dengue fever…well, from the dengue fever. It took me a week, ten days to get over it. Probably the result of the dengue fever also from getting sick and tired of eatin’ sea rations…When I got better they had us goin’ out on what they call clean up. We had a group goin’out and through the caves. Some days we’d capture several Japanese who were holed up. Some of them were sick with dengue fever and probably malaria. I’m not sure what they had. We’d also capture a lot of the Chammaris {Chomorros?} the native people of the Marianas. We’d try to segregate the Japanese from the Maris. The Japanese we had to keep more control over ‘em. The Chamarris wanted to get out so we’d use them to help us pick up the dead bodies and stuff. …During that time I picked up a lot of Japanese rifles, and Japanese souvenirs,

[38:00 on Disk]

but I was more interested in eating. Ever chance I’d get, I’d go aboard ship, aboard the ships that were coming into the harbor there and trade all these rifles and helmets and whatever we had, {pronunciation is Sam Are ees} Samurais. We had a couple of Samurais and I wished I had known that…they said that the handles…they had jewels under the wrappings on ‘em, under the wrapping in the cord…”

In the swords?
“…Yeah, and in the handles they said that a lot of them were encrusted with jewels. Anyhow, I probably would have traded them off for food…I got food from the ships, for those. I used to get the rice…

A good sandwich is worth its weight in jewels, huh?
What we got actually, powdered milk, chocolate and so used to make what we called…I don’t know actually what it was…but we called it rice pudding. We’d use the Japanese rice that we’d get out of the caves, boil all that and put chocolate and powdered milk in it, and sugar to sweeten it, you know. It was pretty good. [39:37 on Disk]

“We lived on that for a while. After that…I don’t remember how long…
After we secured the island…then, we went and took the island of Tinian, which was a neighboring island to Saipan. The battle didn’t last a couple of days, the part that I was involved in, but we still had the clean up. We’d capture some Japanese and some…I would say, almost every day one or two Marines would get killed…It was worse there, in Tinian then it was on Saipan, at least for our outfit it was.

How would they get killed?
The snipers would start shooting at ‘em from different places, you know, and sometimes we could find out where they were shooting from and sometimes we couldn’t. And, sometimes we could capture or kill ‘em, you know? But, anyhow, it kind of affected me mentally, this did. After you had so many months overseas, you got points. They would rotate you OUT, and send you back home…but, when I had enough points, well they kept me out there because of my rating. They said they held me there for the convenience of the Government. Even if I had enough points to go…I had more than enough, almost double the points needed…finally, they let us go home, from Tinian. We went home. [42:25 on Disk]
“I’m not sure what the date was there.

How long were you home?
We got home…I think it was March of ’45. They kept us there and we had pretty good duty. They let us go on leave a lot. Just before the end of the war…In fact, the day that the war ended, they were sending us back overseas. They’d just told us that we were going to go back overseas. We had gotten…we’d packed our sea bags and they had been sent too the dock…and the war ended. We didn’t all get to stay. Everybody who had enough points got to stay. So, I got out. The war ended, I think early September of 1945…they kept me there until the 27th, and finally they discharged me out. And, that was it.” [44:16 on Disk]

I wanted to ask you about when you went to the 50 year reunion, but do you want to take a break? {Sam goes to the bathroom}
[44:38 on Disk—OUT OF SEQUENCE]

Do you have any good memory whatsoever from this period of time?
“They sent me back to Camp Pendleton to await discharge…When I got discharge, of course that was a very happy time too.

Any other incidents or anything that you think would be interesting to others or that you wanted to talk about?Or, anything that I’d forgot to mention or ask you about?
“ I don’t know…Going through the caves we captured groups and one time, we went through the caves and didn’t see anybody. Then we went on down and when we were coming back they got a group of about 10-15 Japanese out of this one cave that we’d already entered. We didn’t go on back…cause they had supplies, when you’d go inside, there would be supplies piled up so we didn’t climb over all that stuff. But, we would throw a couple of grenades back there, and you know, past where we could see. We didn’t hear anything back there so we continued on out. Evidently we shook them up or something ‘cause they came out later on, holding their hands up…Ten or fifteen of ‘em, a group of ‘em anyhow. The most that we’d captured before was one or two guys at a time. We helped this other group take ‘em on down. I was happy that they didn’t attack us when we were in there. We had gone in there and got a bag of rice, about fifty pounds of rice we’d take that back with us. [47:19 on Disk]

“Oh, I don’t know. There’s so many things and my memory has some things out of context, too. I’m not sure if [it] happened before this or after this. I know that they happened.

Who would you say were your best friends?
“While I was in the service? Most of the group who went to New Zealand with, they got to go home because they were not kept for the good of the service like I was kept there. My best friends at the end of the war…one, let’s see, ohhhhh, Abbott…I can’t remember what his first name was. He was a corporal…one of my best friends. I don’t even know if I ever knew his first name because we just called each other by the last names.
Your rank and your last name…
“Most of the guys called me Rick, instead of Richiusa. Let’s see, Abbott was probably my best friend and Walker…and Ray…I knew his first name. Now, I can’t think was his last name was…Anyhow, he lived in Iowa…He went back to Iowa…and Walker lived in Iowa, and part of the time there was a war correspondent named Larry Porter. He was one of my good friends. Abbott, right after the war he went back home…he got married right after we got back from Tinian. Him and his wife went back to Provo, Utah. I haven’t heard from any of them since. I’ve had no contact with any of the guys at all. I never saw them over at Pearl Harbor at the 50th Anniversary. [51:27 on Disk]

You know about the Pearl Harbor movie coming out this summer?
“Yeah, I know.
Are you looking forward to seeing it?
“I’d like to see what they did with it, see how authentic it is…I’m curious.
Any other questions you can think of? I have some stuff at home…I think I still have it…I have the commendation…from President Roosevelt.
This was right after the attack at Pearl Harbor.

I thought there was another commendation from the 50th anniversary…
“There was no commendation there, they just had this parade for us. They saluted us, you know. They really treated us well. Everybody treated us well… the services…Also, we went to the Arizona. We saw that.

How’d that make you feel?
“It was kind of eerie in a way knowing a ship was under there, right where we were there. You could see bubbles coming up. I don’t know if you’ve ever been there or not.

No I haven’t
“It’s kind of interesting. I say bubbles, but it was fuel…fuel oil still coming up after all that time. I don’t know if it still is, now, but at that time it was still coming up.

Could you see the Arizona from the base? Or, was that too far away?
“You mean before the attack?

[OUT OF SEQUENCE—54:10]—Adjusts camera/Likely returning from bathroom break—several false starts…]

So, here we’re back and 50 years later you are invited by who to go to…
“My brother-in-law Ralph asked me if I’d like to go back. And, I said yeah, but I can’t afford it. So, he got tickets and sent us, got a hotel and transportation back and the first day we got there, before the 7th, several days before the ceremony…at night, one of the Marine Colonels invited us over to…first, before that they had a ceremony for us, after the parade. We marched down the street in Honolulu. Then, we toured around the island and
that evening they invited all the survivors, they invited us all to, especially the Marines, to go to a ceremony they had right at the end of the parade ground. [57:31 on Disk]
“They had bleachers there…
Same area where you guys were?
“Same area where we had our tents. There were no longer any tents there. The barracks were still there. The reason we had to go in tents was because the barracks were all full of other people. They had gone in there before we got there. And, besides that, once we had got up…when we had built up to a certain point, when we built that camp, we moved up there. The buildings that were completed were our barracks, and that’s where we stayed. That camp was about halfway between Pearl Harbor Naval Base and downtown Honolulu. It was above a big cane field. [dog barks] We did visit…but I’ll go back, the first day we got there, the first day we arrived at the hotel, the first person I met was somebody who was in my outfit….Mom and I met this couple up there and he was a Marine. He was the first person I met and the first person we talked to when we arrived at the hotel, and he happened to have been in my outfit. I never met anyone else from my outfit.

Did you remember him?
I did NOT remember him. He worked in the headquarters and I worked in the sawmill…the construction part of the engineers.

What about this other friend you have…in Oregon or something?Somebody that you knew from there…some sort of nickname you gave him…
“You’re talking about Gerald Warner…Dodo? He wasn’t in the service with me. He was just a friend. We went through grade school and high school together. He wasn’t in the service with me….After we got back, I never met any of those guys again. One of them lived over by Redondo Beach…
But, this guy we met at the hotel…We hit it off and…Mom and I and him and his wife we went all over the island besides. [1:01:53 on Disk]

Wasn’t there some kind of mix up with the hotel room?
“Yes, that’s right. That happened when we got there at the hotel…The Japanese…When reservations had been made, the Japanese did NOT own the hotel. But, when we got there, the Japanese had bought out the hotel. I don’t recall which hotel it was; it was a nice hotel. They told us that they had to do some construction work over there, but we know better. The whole thing was all sold out to Japanese tourists that came there. They gave them preference over all the servicemen. We were affected, but I don’t know whether ALL the service men were affected, but they put us in some little old flea bitten, old beat up motel…You entered the rooms from the outside. The office was downstairs and you’d go up on the outside, up some stairs. They put us up in this seedy old room. The place was full of bugs and other creatures, geckoes and stuff. We’d only sleep there at night then we were gone all the time…anyway, to get back…after that service that they had for us at the Marine barracks, parade ground, we were all invited to a colonel’s…all the WWII veterans for this big luau. All the food you could imagine, and drink…all the drinks you wanted. They really treated us well. And, while we were there we could go to the Canteen and could buy anything we wanted and no taxes for servicemen, and we got the same treatment as the servicemen…everything you wanted…tax free…I didn’t smoke, but cigarettes were tax free…at that time, I had already quit smoking. We were really treated well. [1:06:24 on Disk]
“…very well, by the military and by the people there except for the hotel…the hotel group. My brother-in-law got reimbursed for the hotel. I put up a stink about it…except for that, it was a very nice trip.

You were on other islands that Saipan and Tinian…
“In battle, Saipan and Tinian were the only battles. We went to a lot of other places.

If you had to rank ‘em what would have been the worst experience?The most frightening, the most…
“My first landing was frightening. The attack on Pearl Harbor I was not afraid. I was so mad about it, that I was not afraid. But, our first landing you got to think about it. You know, when it happens to you suddenly you have a different reaction, but when you think about something, a landing, going in…in landing craft…they’d be shootin’ at you and you just continue on going in, you know? Thinking about it before, even, they started shootin’ at us I was scared to death at that first landing. I had stomach cramps and everything else! Once you get to fighting, then you don’t even think about being afraid.

If you had to pick something to be your best memory of that period between the day you were bombed in Pearl Harbor and the day they said ‘The War’s Over’?
“When I got to go home, from Pearl Harbor, I got married about a month and a half when we got back to the states. That was a very good memory. Then, when I came home from Tinian, after we left Tinian we came back to The States and I got to see my oldest daughter for the first time. She was just two years old, just a little older than two years old. [1:10:34 on Disk]
“I had not seen her. She was born when I was in New Zealand.

The day that Japan was bombed with the A bomb, do you remember that?
“Yes. I was at Camp Pendleton at that time. Of course we all cheered that we had it. In fact, before that we had gone in and bombed it…some of the planes didn’t make it, but we cheered that too. We were looking forward to the war ending…there was so much damage done in Japan, from what we were hearing we were quite sure the war was just about over, but they were still making plans to send us overseas. I was still kind of worried. But, we were happy. That was one of my happier times probably when they told me I didn’t have to go aboard ship. {Disk ABRUPTLY ENDS}

Gordon Richiusa is an Italian American who has been a martial artist for some 50 years. He teaches the Five Bird System. Gordon earned a Master of Arts degree in English and has written numerous articles, stories, books and scripts under his own name and his pen-name, Gordon Rich. He has been a teacher of English Composition, Film as Literature, Creative Writing, and Scriptwriting and He holds two teaching credentials.

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